The chief commander of the Ottoman artillery (Topçubaşı).
The Topgis Bashi or Commandant of Artillery.
WITTMAN, William. Travels in Turkey, Asia-Minor, Syria, and across the desert into Egypt during the years 1799, 1800, and 1801, in company with the Turkish Army, and the British Military Mission..., London, T. Gillet for Richard Phillips, 1803.
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State and military institutions - Diplomatic relations
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